What is BPPV?
BPPV (Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo) is a common inner ear disorder that causes brief spells of vertigo (spinning sensation) triggered by a change in head position. For example, lying back or rolling over in bed, getting up from bed, looking up or down results in brief, 10-15 seconds of vertigo and usually no dizziness any other time. BPPV is caused by“crystals” normally present in one part of the inner ear, but become detached and displaced into another part of the inner ear where they cause vertigo with changes in head position. However, there are many patients diagnosed with BPPV who do not fit this description of symptoms or have a different cause of positional vertigo, yet are often diagnosed and unsuccessfully treated as though they had BPPV.
Why is BPPV Over-diagnosed?
BPPV has gained popularity as a diagnosis because it is a benign condition that causes vertigo and is readily diagnosed and immediately cured by a skilled healthcare provider. Patients often joke about “having a few loose rocks” in their head. BPPV is a common condition, but there are many more people diagnosed with BPPV than actually have BPPV.
How is BPPV Treated?
BPPV is treated by a “crystal repositioning maneuver” (CRM), which is designed to move the “crystals” by gravity back to where they originated, where they may be dissolved. The type of CRM utilized depends on the type of BPPV. For example, one form of BPPV is treated with a modified Epley or a Semont maneuver and another type with a Lempert roll. There is also a type of BPPV where the “crystals” are actually stuck to a membrane in the inner ear and is treated with a headshake of Gufoni maneuver. BPPV is no longer treated by the old fashioned Brandt-Daroff or Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises, or with medications, such as meclizine (Antivert). We are actually able to cure BPPV in one visit over 90% of the time with the appropriate CRM. Unfortunately, we see many patients incorrectly diagnosed with BPPV undergoing a modified Epley maneuver dozens of times unsuccessfully.
What else causes positional vertigo if it’s not BPPV?
Because migraine is the most common cause of dizziness/vertigo and can cause positional symptoms, the most common correct diagnosis in those mis-diagnosed with BPPV, is vestibular migraine. Other conditions which may cause positional dizziness include inner ear nerve weakness, blood pressure changes and even brain tumors. Obviously, it is very important to be certain of the cause of vertigo, as we don’t want to ineffectively treat for a condition that isn’t present and we don’t want to miss a more sinister cause.